2021 (MMXXI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2021st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 21st year of the 3rd millennium and the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2020s decade.
Like the year 2020, 2021 was also heavily defined by the COVID-19 pandemic, due to the emergence of multiple COVID-19 variants. The major global rollout of COVID-19 vaccines, which began at the end of 2020, continued in 2021. Most major events scheduled for 2020 that were postponed due to the pandemic were hosted in 2021, including the 26th United Nations Climate Change Conference, Expo 2020, and sporting events such as UEFA Euro 2020, the 2020 Summer Olympics and Paralympics, as well as the 2021 Copa América.
Notable deaths in 2021 included Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, the consort of Queen Elizabeth II; world leaders Idriss Déby and Jovenel Moïse (who were both killed in office), John Magufuli, Kenneth Kaunda, Benigno Aquino III, Roh Tae-woo, F. W. de Klerk and Chun Doo-hwan; musicians Phil Spector, Bunny Wailer and Charlie Watts; film figures Cloris Leachman, Christopher Plummer, Dilip Kumar and Jean-Paul Belmondo; television actress Betty White; athletes Milkha Singh and Gerd Müller; astronaut Michael Collins; and Archbishop Desmond Tutu.
Since 1980, the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy has been the premier forum for presenting developments in computer security and electronic privacy, and for bringing together researchers and practitioners in the field. The 2021 Symposium will mark the 42nd annual meeting of this flagship conference.
Since 1980, the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy has been the premier forum for computer security and privacy research, presenting the latest developments and bringing together researchers and practitioners in the field. Due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, the organizing committee decided to hold for the second time a virtual conference on May 24-27, 2021. We would like to provide more details on how we selected the program for the 42nd IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, and give some insights into the reviewing process and comparison with previous conferences.
In 2021, California once again experienced above average temperatures, as did nearly all of the Western U.S. Long-term weather stations reported record warmth in Nevada, Oregon, California, and New Mexico. All western states had stations reporting in the top ten warmest years on record. California experienced the fourth hottest year since year since 1895, as drought conditions continued in the state. As a result, annual in-state hydroelectric generation fell by 32 percent from 2020 levels to 14,566 GWh. Total hydroelectric generation, including imports, fell by 23 percent to 28,490 GWh from 37,023 GWh in 2020.
Electricity imports, as shown in Chart 1, increased by 2.5 percent due primarily to increased imports from the Southwest. While the Pacific Northwest had above-average snowpack in early 2021, warmer temperatures in April resulted in record-breaking snowmelt, reducing hydroelectric availability in the summer when California would normally import energy to meet air conditioning loads. This fast snowmelt was also exacerbated by a record-breaking heatwave in June, resulting in 2021 being tied with 1936 as the warmest summer on record in the Pacific Northwest. Ultimately, a shift of energy imports to the Southwest helped maintain overall imports into California at similar levels as those observed in 2020.
The timeliness subdomain includes six measures (one reported by primary care clinicians) summarizing how quickly patients can obtain information, make appointments, and obtain urgent care after hours. The 2021 report includes a new measure of the percentage of respondents who received counseling or treatment for mental health issues if they wanted or needed it. The wording of two survey-based measures was modified since 2017. Five 2017 measures were not included. Two were not available from a recent survey. Three other measures of wait times were excluded because they were asked early in the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic and results were thought to be unreliable.
The preventive care subdomain includes three survey items related to counseling by health professionals on healthy behaviors, three OECD measures of mammography screening and influenza and measles vaccination (new for the 2021 rankings), and three OECD measures of rates (age- and sex-standardized) of avoidable hospital admissions for three prevalent chronic conditions: diabetes, asthma, and congestive heart failure. The wording or timeframe differed slightly for three measures. One 2017 measure was not available from a recent survey.
The 2021 edition of Mirror, Mirror was constructed using the same methodological framework developed for the 2017 report in consultation with an expert advisory panel.2 Another expert advisory panel was convened to review the data, measures, and methods used in the 2021 edition.3
The authors would like to thank the members of the 2021 advisory panel (Marc Elliott, Niek Klazinga, Jennifer Nuzzo, and Irene Papanicolas); our Commonwealth Fund colleagues including David Blumenthal, Melinda Abrams, Chris Hollander, Jen Wilson, Paul Frame, David Radley, Jesse Baumgartner, and Gaby Aboulafia; and Rie Fujisawa from OECD for their insights and assistance in producing this report.
There are three new categories, four categories with naming and scoping changes, and some consolidation in the Top 10 for 2021. We've changed names when necessary to focus on the root cause over the symptom.
We spent several months grouping and categorizing CWEs and could have continued for additional months. We had to stop at some point. There are both root cause and symptom types of CWEs, where root cause types are like \"Cryptographic Failure\" and \"Misconfiguration\" contrasted to symptom types like \"Sensitive Data Exposure\" and \"Denial of Service.\" We decided to focus on the root cause whenever possible as it's more logical for providing identification and remediation guidance. Focusing on the root cause over the symptom isn't a new concept; the Top Ten has been a mix of symptom and root cause. CWEs are also a mix of symptom and root cause; we are simply being more deliberate about it and calling it out. There is an average of 19.6 CWEs per category in this installment, with the lower bounds at 1 CWE for A10:2021-Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) to 40 CWEs in A04:2021-Insecure Design. This updated category structure offers additional training benefits as companies can focus on CWEs that make sense for a language/framework.
In 2017, we selected categories by incidence rate to determine likelihood, then ranked them by team discussion based on decades of experience for Exploitability, Detectability (also likelihood), and Technical Impact. For 2021, we want to use data for Exploitability and (Technical) Impact if possible.
For the Top Ten 2021, we calculated average exploit and impact scores in the following manner. We grouped all the CVEs with CVSS scores by CWE and weighted both exploit and impact scored by the percentage of the population that had CVSSv3 + the remaining population of CVSSv2 scores to get an overall average. We mapped these averages to the CWEs in the dataset to use as Exploit and (Technical) Impact scoring for the other half of the risk equation.
We formalized the OWASP Top 10 data collection process at the Open Security Summit in 2017. OWASP Top 10 leaders and the community spent two days working out formalizing a transparent data collection process. The 2021 edition is the second time we have used this methodology.
We look at the eight categories with the highest incidence rates for inclusion in the Top 10. We also look at the Top 10 community survey results to see which ones may already be present in the data. The top two votes that aren't already present in the data will be selected for the other two places in the Top 10. Once all ten were selected, we applied generalized factors for exploitability and impact; to help rank the Top 10 2021 in a risk based order.
The Theory of Cryptography Conference (TCC 2021) will take place in Raleigh, United States on November 8-11 2021. TCC 2021 is organized by the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR).
The IDF Diabetes Atlas 10th edition provides detailed information on the estimated and projected prevalence of diabetes, globally, by region, country and territory, for 2021, 2030 and 2045. It draws attention to the growing impact of diabetes across the world and highlights proven and effective actions that governments and policy-makers must urgently take to tackle it.
Our editorial team has evolved over the years. In 2017, we added Jan-Emmanuel De Neve, Haifang Huang, and Shun Wang as Associate Editors, joined in 2019 by Lara Aknin. In 2020, Jan-Emmanuel De Neve became a co-editor, and the Oxford Wellbeing Research Centre thereby became a fourth research pole for the Report. In 2021, Haifang Huang stepped down as an Associate Editor, following four years of much-appreciated service. He has kindly agreed to continue as co-author of Chapter 2, where his contributions have been crucial since 2015.
Note on COVID-19 Impacts (*Updated for 2022). The most recently available nation-wide unsheltered data are from the 2020 Point-in-Time Count. Pandemic-related health concerns disrupted counts of unsheltered people in 2021. While some CoCs made such data available for that year, the nationwide count will not be fully updated until late 2022 or early 2023, leaving a significant hole in available knowledge on homelessness.
Sheltered Homelessness on the Decline (*New for 2022). While unsheltered homelessness was on the rise during the period leading up to the pandemic, fewer and fewer people were staying in shelters. The downward trend in shelter usage continued into 2021. 59ce067264